Wednesday, May 30, 2012

NEJM Audio Summary - May 24, 2012

Excerpted Script
0:56|"Aspirin for Preventing the Recurrence of Venous Thromboembolism" by Cecilia Becattini. From University of Perugia, Italy. About 20% of patients with venous thrombosis or embolism but no defined risk factors have a recurrence within the first 2 years after stopping anticoagulation therapy. This study assessed the clinical benefit of aspirin for the prevention of recurrence after a course of treatment with vitamin K antagonists in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism. Venous thromboembolism recurred in 28 of the 205 patients who received aspirin and in 43 of the 197 patients who received placebo (6.6% vs. 11.2% per year). During a median treatment period of 23.9 months, 23 patients taking aspirin and 39 taking placebo had a recurrence (5.9% vs. 11.0% per year). One patient in each treatment group had a major bleeding episode. Aspirin reduced the risk of recurrence when given to patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism who had discontinued anticoagulant treatment, with no apparent increase in the risk of major bleeding.
2:13| Richard Becker, from Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, writes in the editorial that the findings of this study are compelling and may signal an important step in the evolution of care; however, confirmatory studies will be required to establish a role in daily clinical practice for the use of aspirin among patients who are at high risk for bleeding due to anticoagulant therapy or for whom ongoing investigations identify and subsequently validate a clinical or biomarker-based profile associated with a low risk of recurring venous thromboembolism.
これをきっかけに循環器学会のHPを覗いて見ました。いつのまにか、ガイドラインが充実しています。呼吸器学会みたいに「買ってね」というのじゃないのが嬉しい。

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

済州島で考えた2,3のこと

4泊5日で済州島へ出掛けてきた。

メインの目的は、WONCA APRカンファレンスへの参加。この歳になって初めての海外学会への参加でポスターセッションでのプレゼンテーションを行い、いろいろな刺激があった。WONCAというのは、ホームページによると、World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physiciansの略で、各国の総合医/家庭医諸学会の世界組織といったところ。国内でも、総合医/家庭医のアイデンティティがよく議論のネタになるが、世界的に見ると、そのスコープは更に広がる。しかし、思い起こせば、日本も田舎の一人医者の診療所で開頭術や開腹術を行なっていた時代があり、マグロ船や戦時中の船医は、急性虫垂炎の手術をこなすことが必須であったわけだ。要するに、時代や医療制度、医療資源へのアクセスにより総合医/家庭医の守備範囲は変わってくるわけで、そのカメレオン的いいかげんさが総合医/家庭医の本質なのだろうと考えた次第。1984年に流行った言葉を借用すると、パラノ医者とスキゾ医者が、専門医と総合医/家庭医に呼応するではあるまいか。比喩的な表現をすると、しがらみの杭が専門医、横木が総合医/家庭医、自分の関心事、social network analysisに我田引水すると、ノードが専門医、エッジが総合医/家庭医に譬えられよう。

隠れた目的は、家族サービスと済州島自体への関心である。特に、済州島四三事件が落とす陰影に興味があった。それで現地ではなるべくタクシーを使い、運転手と話をしながら遠出をして、地元の食堂に出掛けるようにした。長閑な島の期待を裏切って、過剰なほどに思えるインフラ整備がされている印象を持った。人口歴史学的に見ると、事件前の1948年には28万人、事件後の1957年には3万人弱になっていた。そして今は55万人。その急激な人口増加に、地政学的な辺境性も加え、政府の加害者意識が投資を招いたのではあるまいか。心情的にそしてコミュニケーションの術の欠如から直接に地元の人からの証言を得ることは出来なかったが。

往復はKALで仁川経由の旅。空港鉄道の開通で非常に便利になっていた。機内では、行きはジョージ・クルーニー主演映画「ファミリーツリー」、帰りはリッキー・マーティンのアルバム"MUSICA ALMA SEXO"のお陰で、退屈をせずに済んだ。ジョージ・クルーニーの「スーパーチューズデー」は観ていたので、映画の選択肢に「ファミリーツリー」のほうが入っていたのは、ラッキーでした。「青天の霹靂」という成語を2時間で語った作品。ハワイが舞台ということもあり、平和な日常に開いた不遇の空隙を描いたストーリーは「地上より永遠に」とかぶります。リッキー・マーティンのアルバムは、YouTubeでスペインのバンドLa 5ª Estaciónのボーカル、Natalia Jiménezが参加した"Lo Mejor De Mi Vida Eres Tú"は聴いておりましたが、他の曲も含めて通して聴くのは初めて。ゲイのカミングアウトをして、代理出産で2人の男の子を授かって子育てを経験しての初アルバム。ラテンのAlma(魂)に拘り、自分のSexo(性的嗜好)の告白の心境をバラードで歌い上げている。秀作揃いで帰国して、久しぶりにCDを買ってしまいました。

Wednesday, May 23, 2012

NEJM Audio Summary - May 17, 2012

Excerpted Script
0:54| "Warfarin and Aspirin in Patients with Heart Failure and Sinus Rhythm", by  Shunichi Homma, from Columbia University Medical Center, New York. Patients with heart failure and sinus rhythm benefit from anticoagulation. This trial assessed whether warfarin or aspirin is a better treatment for patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) who were in sinus rhythm. The rates of the primary outcome which was the first event of ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or death from any cause were 7.47 events per 100 patient-years in the warfarin group and 7.93 in the aspirin group. Thus, there was no significant overall difference between the two treatments. In a time-varying analysis, the hazard ratio changed over time, slightly favoring warfarin over aspirin by the fourth year of follow-up, but this finding was only marginally significant. Warfarin, as compared with aspirin, was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of ischemic stroke throughout the follow-up period (0.72 events per 100 patient-years vs. 1.36 ). The rate of major hemorrhage was 1.78 events per 100 patient-years in the warfarin group as compared with 0.87 in the aspirin group. Among patients with reduced LVEF who were in sinus rhythm, there was no significant overall difference in the primary outcome between treatment with warfarin and treatment with aspirin. A reduced risk of ischemic stroke with warfarin was offset by an increased risk of major hemorrhage. The choice between warfarin and aspirin should be individualized.
2:47| In editorial, John Eikelboom from McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, writes that the results of this trial are consistent with those of three previous smaller randomized, controlled trials in showing that warfarin anticoagulant therapy, as compared with aspirin, is not associated with a reduction in mortality among patients with heart failure. This trial provides clear evidence that anticoagulant therapy prevents stroke, probably embolic stroke, in patients with heart failure who have severe systolic dysfunction, but the rates of stroke are too low to justify the routine clinical use of warfarin in most patients with heart failure, in light of the increase in the risk of bleeding.
内容は2月に行われた国際脳卒中学会で発表されたもの。著者の本間俊一教授はこのような方

Monday, May 21, 2012

Android携帯を使ってホテルのテレビで映画を観る

今日は出張の前泊。先日見つけたYouTubeにアップされていたドキュメント映画"Che, un hombre nuevo(チェ、新たなる人間)"を観ることにした。ホテルのテレビにHDMI端子があったので、右のケーブルを使って、携帯の動画をテレビに出力して鑑賞。




Sunday, May 20, 2012

感染症の絵本

ぜひ待合室に揃えたいな。



Wednesday, May 16, 2012

NEJM Audio Summary - May 10, 2012

Excerpted Script
0:41| "Continuous Lenalidomide Treatment for Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma" by Antonio Palumbo, from the University of Turin, Italy.
Lenalidomide has tumoricidal and immunomodulatory activity against multiple myeloma. This study compared melphalan–prednisone–lenalidomide induction followed by lenalidomide maintenance (MPR-R) with melphalan–prednisone–lenalidomide (MPR) or melphalan–prednisone (MP) followed by placebo in patients 65 years of age or older with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.  The median progression-free survival was significantly longer with MPR-R (31 months) than with MPR (14 months) or MP (13 months). Response rates were superior with MPR-R and MPR (77% and 68%, respectively, vs. 50% with MP). After induction therapy, a landmark analysis showed a 66% reduction in the rate of progression with MPR-R  that was age-independent. MPR-R significantly prolonged progression-free survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for transplantation, with the greatest benefit observed in patients 65 to 75 years of age. 
多発性骨髄腫、クリニックで診療していると、ともすると鑑別診断からこぼれ落ちそうになる疾患だ。その治療に関し、サリドマイド誘導体の「レナリドミド」の有効性が話題になっている。日本でも薬価収載され、1日25㎎、1ヶ月に21日間服用し7日間休薬するスケジュールの場合、1ヶ月のレナリドミドの費用は、8,861円×5カプセル×21日 = 930,405円で、1割負担で 93,040円となります。治療したくとも放置せざるを得ない患者さんの存在が懸念されます。

Monday, May 14, 2012

NHK語学講座録音ソフト"CaptureStream"

今日は素敵なソフトを見つけたので御紹介。NHKでは、ラジオ語学講座の前週分をネットでストリーミング放送してくれている。欲を言えば、podcast配信をして欲しいところなのだが、そうもいかない事情があるのでしょう。そのストリーム放送をmp3で録音してくれるソフトが、今日紹介する"CaptureStream"。嬉しいのは、Windows、Mac、ubuntuのプラットフォームに対応してくれていること。英語の番組の他、仏独西伊露中韓の各国語の番組の録音が可能。「ニュースで英会話」、「ABCニュースシャワー」に関しては動画もダウンロードできる。使う時のコツとしては、カスタマイズで保存フォルダを変更して、Dropboxなどに設定しておくと、携帯からもアクセスできて便利。デスクトップで聴くときは、"PlayItSlowly"を使うと音程を変えずにスピードのみを変えられるので、1.5倍速で聞くと時間の節約にもなる。(残念ながらこのソフトはLinux版のみ)
ところで、"Psychological SCIENCES"という雑誌に"The Foreign-Language Effect : Thinking in a Foreign Tongue Reduces Decision Biases"[PDF]という論文が掲載されている。詳細はまだ目を通していないが、推測するに、母国語だと、レアリアが豊富なだけに却ってそれが仇になり、冷静な判断に雑音が入るすぎるのでしょうね。

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

NEJM Audio Summary - May 3, 2012

Excerpted Script
0:48| "Strategies of Radioiodine Ablation in Patients with Low-Risk Thyroid Cancer",
by Martin Schlumberger, from Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. This trial compared two thyrotropin-stimulation methods and two 131I doses for postoperative ablation in patients with low-risk thyroid cancer.  In the 684 patients with data that could be evaluated, ultrasonography of the neck was normal in 652 (95%), and the stimulated thyroglobulin level was 1.0 ng per milliliter or less in 621 of the 652 patients (95%) without detectable thyroglobulin antibodies. Thyroid ablation was complete in 631 of the 684 patients (92%). The ablation rate was equivalent between the 131I doses and between the thyrotropin-stimulation methods. The use of recombinant human thyrotropin and low-dos(1.1 GBq) postoperative radioiodine ablation may be sufficient for the management of low-risk thyroid cancer.
4:40| "Two-Year Outcomes after Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic-Valve Replacement", by Susheel Kodali, from Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York. This study provides 2-year data from the PARTNER trial, in which patients with aortic stenosis received transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical replacement. The rates of death from any cause were similar in the TAVR and surgery groups (hazard ratio with TAVR, 0.90) and at 2 years were 33.9% in the TAVR group and 35.0% in the surgery group. The frequency of all strokes during follow-up did not differ significantly between the two groups. At 30 days, strokes were more frequent with TAVR than with surgical replacement (4.6% vs. 2.4%); subsequently, there were 8 additional strokes in the TAVR group and 12 in the surgery group. Improvement in valve areas was similar with TAVR and surgical replacement and was maintained for 2 years. Paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR, and even mild paravalvular regurgitation was associated with increased late mortality. This 2-year follow-up of patients in the PARTNER trial supports TAVR as an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. The two treatments were similar with respect to mortality, reduction in symptoms, and improved valve hemodynamics, but paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR and was associated with increased late mortality.
今回からCMEの指定のある記事の部分を取り上げることにする。

Friday, May 4, 2012

Inkscapeでミニポスター

Adobe IllustratorのOpenSource版に相当するInkscapeで、このブログのタイトルの由来ともなった「ドン・キホーテ」の第一章のはじめと最終章の終わりの部分をイラスト周囲に回り込ませたミニポスターを作ってみた。手順を個条書きにしておく。

  • ソフト自体の入手:Inkscapeのホームページから。
  • 用紙サイズを設定
  • タイトルとサブタイトル:フォントは、本文も含めMyriad Proで統一。
  • 画像を中央に配置:「オブジェクト」メニューから「整列と配置」
  • テキストの回り込み:シェイプ操作を駆使して、画像を囲むオブジェクトを準備して、別に用意しておいたテキストを「テキスト」→「テキストの流しこみ」で入力。配置のjustificationも忘れずに。
  • 印刷前の最終チェックポイント3つ:テキストはパス化する。画像は埋め込む。不要なオブジェクトは削除する。
四苦八苦して完成したのがこちら。


参考ページ

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

NEJM Audio Summary - April 26, 2012

Excerpted Script
0:49| "Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy in Obese Patients with Diabetes", by Philip Schauer from Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
This randomized controlled study of 150 obese patients with type 2 diabetes determined the efficacy of intensive medical therapy alone versus medical therapy plus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy. The proportion of patients with the primary end point,  which was glycated hemoglobin level of 6% or less 12 months after treatment, was 12% in the medical-therapy group versus 42% in the gastric-bypass group and 37% in the sleeve-gastrectomy group. Glycemic control improved in all three groups, with a mean glycated hemoglobin level of 7.5% in the medical-therapy group, 6.4% in the gastric-bypass group, and 6.6% in the sleeve-gastrectomy group. Weight loss was greater in the gastric-bypass group and sleeve-gastrectomy group (−29.4 kg and −25.1 kg, respectively) than in the medical-therapy group (−5.4 kg). In obese patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, 12 months of medical therapy plus bariatric surgery achieved glycemic control in significantly more patients than medical therapy alone. Further study will be necessary to assess the durability of these results.
1:44| "Bariatric Surgery versus Conventional Medical Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes", by Geltrude Mingrone from Università Cattolica S. Cuore, Rome.
This trial compared the efficacy of two types of bariatric surgery (gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion) with conventional medical therapy in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes. At 2 years, diabetes remission had occurred in no patients in the medical-therapy group versus 75% in the gastric-bypass group and 95% in the biliopancreatic-diversion group. Age, sex, baseline BMI, duration of diabetes, and weight changes were not significant predictors of diabetes remission at 2 years or of improvement in glycemia at 1 and 3 months. At 2 years, the average baseline glycated hemoglobin level (8.65%) had decreased in all groups, but patients in the two surgical groups had the greatest degree of improvement (average glycated hemoglobin levels, 7.69% in the medical-therapy group, 6.35% in the gastric-bypass group, and 4.95% in the biliopancreatic-diversion group).  In severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery resulted in better glucose control than did medical therapy. Preoperative BMI and weight loss did not predict the improvement in hyperglycemia after these procedures.
2:42| In editorial Paul Zimmet from the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia, writes that these studies are likely to have a major effect on future diabetes treatment. Nevertheless, more studies are needed, particularly those that may provide better prediction of success and the expected duration of remission and long-term complications. Meanwhile, the success of various types of bariatric surgery suggests that they should not be seen as a last resort. Such procedures might well be considered earlier in the treatment of obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
「肥満手術」って、肥満症が異常に多い彼の国での話かと思いきや、先進国の中では、むしろ日本が異常に少ないのだそうだ。(参照:"Metabolic/Bariatric Surgery Worldwide 2008"[PDF])そして、そんな我が国でも2010年に日本肥満症治療学会で「日本における高度肥満症に対する安全で卓越した外科治療のためのステートメント2010」[PDF]なんてもんが公開されていた。考えようによっては、効くかどうかわからないダイエット商品よりも、手術の質が担保されれば、手術のほうが倫理的と言えるかもしれないが…